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  • br Conclusion br We successfully developed self linkable PMG

    2019-09-25


    4. Conclusion
    We successfully developed self-linkable PMGO as a peroxidase-
    mimicking nanozyme for signal amplification to form an ultrasensitive immunosensor with biochipApoA1 for the simple and rapid diagnosis and prognosis monitoring of BC. As a result of this approach, our study demonstrated that the colorimetric immunosensor can accurately de-tect the ApoA1 concentration in urine as well as an ELISA assay can, and the self-signal amplification strategy can significantly widen the detection range of ApoA1, from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL with an LOD of 0.02 ng/mL, which was achieved within a CORM-3 of 60 min, allowing 
    for the detection of ApoA1 in clinical urine samples. The biosensing of clinical urine samples shows a reasonable variation with a standard reference from the hospital, also confirmed the importance of ApoA1, which can add information regarding the pathophysiological mechan-isms of BC. More importantly, our colorimetric immunosensor with self-linkable PMGOs for signal amplification has a simple, convenient, high sensitivity, high selectivity and low cost, providing a promising tool for point-of-care medical diagnosis and prognosis monitoring, and could
    Fig. 6. (A) ApoA1 concentrations in 20 urine samples (4 from healthy people, 14 from BC patients) measured using the immunosensor with self-linkable PMGOs and an ELISA for BC diagnosis and prognosis monitoring (n = 3). (B) The level of ApoA1 in urine samples from healthy people and BC patients detected by immunosensor with self-linkable PMGOs and ELISA for BC diagnosis and prognosis monitoring. BCbefore: the urine from the BC patient collected before treatment; BCafter: the urine from the BC patient collected after clinical treatment and no recurrence observed.
    rival other commercially available instruments in the future.
    Acknowledgments
    Appendix A. Supporting information
    References
    www.elsevier.com/locate/humpath
    Original contribution
    A combination of GATA3 and SOX10 is useful for the diagnosis of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer☆
    Gary H. Tozbikian MD , Debra L. Zynger MD
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Keywords:
    Triple negative;
    Breast cancer;
    Metastatic;
    Primary 
    Summary In metastatic breast cancer (MBC), it can be difficult to establish the origin if the primary tumor is triple negative or if there is a loss of biomarker expression. SOX10 expression has been reported in primary triple-negative breast cancer but is poorly studied in metastatic lesions. In this study, the diagnostic utility of a panel of SOX10, GATA3, and androgen receptor (AR) in MBC negative for estrogen receptor, progester-one receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was evaluated and compared with the expres-sion of these markers in the matched primary breast cancer. In a series of 57 triple-negative MBCs, 82% were positive for GATA3, 58% for SOX10, and 25% for AR. Nearly all MBCs (95%) were positive for ei-ther GATA3 or SOX10, with 46% dual positive and 5% of cases negative for both markers. Most GATA3-negative MBC cases were SOX10 positive (70%). AR expression was only seen in GATA3-positive MBC (25%) and was significantly more frequent in SOX10-negative MBC (48%) versus SOX10-positive MBC (9%; P = .001). Concordance for GATA3, SOX10, and AR between the primary and metastasis was 89%, 88%, and 80%, respectively. Although GATA3 is a more sensitive lineage marker than SOX10 in MBC, SOX10 is a useful adjunct because it is positive in most GATA3-negative breast metastases. Using both GATA3 and SOX10 is recommended for confirming breast as the site of origin in metastases that lack es-trogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, whereas the addition of AR is not helpful.