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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Cancer Letters
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    Original Articles
    Blood and dietary magnesium levels are not linked with lower prostate cancer risk in black or white men 
    Jay H. Fowkea,∗, Tatsuki Koyamab, Qi Daic, S. Lilly Zhengd, Jianfeng Xud, Lauren E. Howarde,f, Stephen J. Freedlandf,g
    a Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, TN, USA
    b Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    c Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    d Program for Personalized SPDP Crosslinker Cancer Care, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA
    e Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA
    f Surgery Section, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    g Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Genetic African ancestry 
    Recent studies suggest a diet low in dietary magnesium intake or lower blood magnesium levels is Barr body linked with increased prostate cancer risk. This study investigates the race-specific link between blood magnesium and calcium levels, or dietary magnesium intake, and the diagnosis of low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer. The study included 637 prostate cancer cases and 715 biopsy-negative controls (50% black) recruited from Nashville, TN or Durham, NC. Blood was collected at the time of recruitment, and dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Percent genetic African ancestry was determined as a compliment to self-reported race. Blood magnesium levels and dietary magnesium intake were significantly lower in black compared to white men. However, magnesium levels or intake were not associated with risk of total prostate cancer or aggressive prostate cancer. Indeed, a higher calcium-to-magnesium diet intake was significantly protective for high-grade prostate cancer in black (OR = 0.66 (0.45, 0.96), p = 0.03) but not white (OR = 1.00 (0.79, 1.26), p = 0.99) men. In summary, there was a statistically significant difference in magnesium intake between black and white men, but the biological impact was unclear, and we did not confirm a lower prostate cancer risk associated with magnesium levels.